Bataan's population annually increases at the rate of 2.74%. This rate was recorded as the highest in Region III and was higher than the national average of 2.2%. As of 2006, the projected population was computed at 657,119. The municipalities of Mariveles and Dinalupihan with population of 99, 187 and 93,060 respectively, have the highest recorded population. The least populated towns are Morong and Bagac, with population of 25,048 and 24,355, respectively.
In terms of the number of households, there was an increase from 98,499 in 1995 to 113,674 in 2000. In 2006, the number of household is estimated to be 133,847. The average household size is 4.90 persons per household .
In Bataan, 61 .6% of the total population comprises the working age group (15 to 64 years old). Individuals aged 0 to 14 years old constitute 34.9%, and those aged 65 and above comprise 3.5% of the 2006 population. Dependency ratio in 2000 was 62. This means that for every l00 persons in the working age group (15 to 64 years), there were 62 dependents, that is 57 young dependents (0 to 14 years old) and 5 old dependents (65 years old and above).
The coastal areas of Bataan are being utilized for fisheries and shellfish culture, shipping and navigation, industries, tourism and recreation, and built-up areas.
Fisheries and Aquaculture
Bataan has a total of 87 coastal barangays in 10 coastal municipalities, and 1 coastal city. Fishing is the most practiced activity along the coastal and sea areas of Bataan. Around 220,032 or 34.45% of the population is mainly dependent on this activity as their source of livelihood. There are two forms of fishing in the area; brackish water aquaculture and capture fisheries. Capture fisheries are for municipal and commercial fishing activities.
Brackish fishponds are present in the municipalities of Hermosa, Orani, Samal, Abucay, Pilar, Orion, and City of Balanga, where different forms of fishes, mudcrabs, and prawns are being cultured. One can also find along these areas the stretches of mangroves and mudflats that serve as breeding ground of fish, buffer zone, and protection of the fishponds and coastal communities during tidal inundation. One of the major areas of concern is the illegal expansion of fishponds, which encroach on the mangroves, as I well as mudflat areas.
As of 2002, there were 6,715 registered motorized bancas and 3,405 non-motorized bancas for the municipal fishing activities for the whole province. There are about 18 fishing vessels with 18 operators for commercial fishing. (Source: PPDO -MTDP 2002) Transboundary issue among LGUs along the bay is a common problem because the application of 15-km. limit results in overlapping jurisdictions. Equity sharing among the LGUs is one of the recommended solutions in Coastal Land-Sea-Use Zoning Plan.
On the western side of the province, the application of the 15-km. municipal waters limit is a problem of Morong with the Province of Zambales and the Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority (SBMA}. Municipal and traditional fishermen also experience conflicting uses due to the presence of beaches and other tourism and recreational activities in the area. The presence of nesting sites of marine turtles along the beaches of Bagac and Morong should likewise be considered in the tourism, industrial, and real estate development.
Several commercial fishing vessels that weigh greater than three (3} gross tonnages (GT} operate within Manila Bay. Others operate outside of Manila Bay as far as South China Sea. RA 8550 authorizes or permits small-scale (3.1-20 GT} commercial fishing and medium-scale (20.1-150 GT} commercial fishing vessels to operate within the 10.1 to 15-km. area from the shoreline of the municipal waters, on the condition that there are permits from the city/municipal government, and acting pursuant to an appropriate ordinance. This has created problems, such as over-fishing and resulted in conflicts within the municipal waters, especially the competition between traditional and municipal fishing and commercial fishing. Such conflicts are prevalent in the municipalities of Limay, Mariveles, and Morong. Bagac is the only LGU in Bataan that passed an ordinance allowing small- and medium-scale commercial fishing vessels to operate within its municipal waters. Large-scale commercial fishing is defined as utilizing active gears and vessels of more than 150 GT.
Shipping and Navigation
Manila Bay is one of the important avenues of development of the country which rely on shipping and navigational activities. This can be seen on the coastal side of Bataan where heavy industries are complemented with shipping and navigational system. This is mainly concentrated in the municipalities of Limay and Mariveles. In addition, the Philippine Ports Authority (PPA} was able to establish three (3} national ports: Port of Lamao, Port of Mariveles, and Port of Orion. The ports of Lamao and Mariveles are utilized for cargo vessels and chemical and oil tankers. Custom duties are derived from them. Port of Orion was established for roll on -roll off (RORO) and passenger ferries. All ships and ferries are bound for Manila and other domestic and international destinations.
There is also the Maritime Academy of Asia and the Pacific (MAAP), which makes use of the bay as their training ground for their students. The Ports of Lamao and Mariveles are among the high-risk areas for oil spills in Manila Bay (Manila Bay Oil Spill Contingency Plan). It is therefore necessary to set up permanent shipping and navigational lanes and aids to avoid accidents that may arise along the bay due to multiple resource uses.
Industrial Activities along Coastal Areas
Medium and heavy industries such as petrochemical estate, oil refineries and depot, power generating plants, grains terminal and economic zones are concentrated along the coastal areas of Limay and Mariveles. These industries are the frequent users of the bay. Other than their extensive facilities and structures that are positioned on the significant portion of the shoreline, some of these large industrial establishments have constructed and maintained their own ports, piers, and berthing facilities in support of their activities.
Tourism and Recreational Activities
Built-up areas consist of residential, institutional, commercial, and small-scale enterprises. Aside from being a peninsular province, the open and free access to fishing and other sources of fresh food items has become a strong attraction to the people of Bataan and nearby provinces to locate in the coastal areas. Most of the municipalities in Bataan along Manila Bay are experiencing the pressure of increasing settlement in their respective coastal areas. The threat on other resources, such as mangroves and mudflats continues to crop up due to continuous reclamation and encroachment of people for their settlement and other purposes.